Warren Hastings (1772 - 1785) - First Governor General of India Warren Hastings was appointed to the position of Chief of the Council in Bengal in 1772. Then he became the first Governor General of Bengal in 1773. The Dual system introduced by the Robert Clive cancelled by him. He reduced allowances of Nawab and Mughal Emperor to improve the finance states of the East India Company. The Board of Revenue was created in Calcutta and Collectors were appointed in each district of Bengal to supervise the revenue collection Process. Civil court was headed by the District Collector and Criminal court headed by an Indian judge. Courts were established in every district. There were two appellate courts one for Civil (Sadar Diwani Adalat) and another for Criminal (Sadar Nizamat Adalat). Sadar Diwani Adalat was headed by the Governor and two judges. Judges were recruited by the council of the Governor. Sadar Nizamat Adalat was headed by an Indian judge appointed by the Council. Redefined Hindu and Muslim laws. Rohilla war (1774) Hafiz Rahmat Khan was the ruler of the Rohilkand. He expected an attack to his country from Marathas. So he made a defensive treaty with the Nawab of Oudh in 1772. But there were no attacks from the Marathas. But Nawab demanded money from the ruler of Rohilkand as per the treaty. Hafiz Rahmat Khan refused to give money to Nawab. Because Nawab invaded Rohilkand with the help of British troops. Warren Hastings was crticised for his policy in this matter First Anglo-Maratha War (1776-82) There was a conflict between the Madhav Rao and his uncle Ragunatha Rao for the post of Peshwa. The treaty of Surat was concluded between the Governor of Bombay and Ragunatha Rao. Based on treaty of Surat Ragunatha Rao accepted to cede the Bassein and Salsette to the British. He was not able to fulfill the British needs. So the British captured him. These activities were not approved by the Warren Hastings. He cancelled the treaty of Surat and made new treaty called Puranthar with another Maratha leader Nana Fadnavis. According to this treaty Madhava Rao II was appointed as the Peshwa. Warren Hastings also rejected the treaty of Puranthar and took military actions against the Marathas. The war ended by the treaty of Salbai concluded between the Warren Hastings and Mahadaji Scindia. Madhav Rao II was accepted as Peshwa. Salsette and Bassein were given to the British 2nd Anglo-Mysore War (1780-84) One of the reasons of this war was British failed to support Haider when he was attacked by Marathas in 1771. During the American freedom war, Clashes erupted between the British and French (an ally of Haider). Mahi - the French colony under the territory of Haider was captured by the British. Haider established the great partnership with Maratha and Nizham of Hyderabad in 1779 against the British. Warren Hastings made peace and got support from Nizam and Maratha leaders. It broke the alliance of Nizam and Maratha with the Haider. He was defeated by Sir Eyre Coote at Porto Novo. Haider died in December 1982. The Second Mysore War was ended by the treaty of Mangalore.
Lord Cornwallis (1786 - 1793) First person to codify laws (in 1793) the code separated the revenue administration from the administration of justice. Created post of District Judge Introduced Permanent Settlement Bengal. Cornwallis is called the father of Civil service in India. Wars 3rd Anglo-Mysore (defeat of Tipu and the Treaty of seringapattanam 1972)
Sir John Shore (1793-1798) Introduced the 1st Charter Act. Planned the permanent Settlement and later succeeded Cornwallis as Governor General Wars Battle of kharda between Nizam and the Marathas (1795)
Lord Wellesly (1798-1805)
Started Subsidiary Alliance system to achieve British paramountcy in India. Madras Presidency was formed during his tenure. Wars 4th Anglo-Mysore War (1799) defear and the death of Tipu Sultan, 2nd Anglo-Maratha war (1803-05) defeat of the Sindhia the Bhonsale and the Holkar, Treaty of Bassein (1802)
George Barlow (1805-1807) Vellore Mutiny (1806)
Lord Minto I (1807-1813) Concluded Treaty of Amritsar with Ranjit Singh (1809). Charter Act of 1813 was passed.
Lord Hastings (1813-1823) Introduced the Ryotwari Settlement in Madras by Thomas Munro, the Governer. Adopted the policy of intervention and war. Wars Anglo-Napelese War (1813-23), 3rd Anglo-Maratha War (1817-18). Hastings forced humiliating treaties on Peshwa and the Sindhia
Lord Amherst (1823-28) Ist Burmese War (1824-26) Acquisition of territories in Malary Peninsula. Capture of Bharatpur (1826)
Lord W. Bentick (1828-35) Most liberal and enlightened Governor General of India. Regarded as the father of Modern Western education in India. Abolition of Sato and other cruel rites (1829) Suppression of Thugee (1830), Curbed by Colonel sleeman. Passed the Charter Act of 1833, which provided that no Indian subject of company was to be debarred from holding on office on account of his religion, place of birth, descent and colour.
Macaulay’s minutes in education were accepted declaring that English should be the official language in India. Abolition of provincial courts of appeal and circuit set up by Cornwallis, appointment of commissioners of revenue and circuit. Wars Annexed Mysore (1831), Coorg (1834), Central Cachar (1834) on the plea of misgovernment. Concluded a treaty of perpetual friendship with Ranjit Singh.
Sir Charles Metcafe (1835-1836) Passed the famous press law, which liberated the press in India
Lord Auckland (1836-42) 1st Afghan War (1836-42) great blow to the prestige of the British in India
Lord Ellenborough (1842-44) Brought an end to the Afgan war. Annexation of Sindh (1843) War with Gwalior (1843)
Lord Hardinge I (1844-48) Ist Anglo-Siks War and the Treaty of Lahore, 1846 (marked the end of Sikh Sovereignity in India) Gave preference to English educated in employment.
Lord Dalhousie (1848-56) Abolished to tile and pensions Window Remarriage Act (1856) Administrative Reforms Introduced the system of centralized control in the newly acquired territories known as Non-Regulation system. Raised Gurkha Refiments. Educational Reforms Recommended the Thomsonian system of Vernacular education for whole of the North-Western Provinces (1853) Wood’s educational Despatch of 1884 and opening of Anglo-Vernacular Schools and Government Colleges. Universities were to be set up at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. An Engineering College was established at Roorkee. Public Works Started the first railway line in 1853 (connecting Bombay to Thana was laid down) Started electric telegraph service. Laid the basis of the modern postal system. Established a separate Public Works Department. Started work on the Grand Trunk Road and developed the harbours of Karachi, Bombay and Calcutta. Wars Introduced Doctrine of Lapse (captured Satra (1948), Jaipur and Sambhalpur (1849), Baghat (1850), Udaipur (1852), Jhansi (1853) and Nagpur (1854). Fought the Anglo-Sikh War and annexed the whole of the Punjap, 2nd Burmese war (1852) and Annexation of lower Burma or Pegu, Annexation of Berar in 1853, Annexation of Oudh in 1856.
Lord Canning (1856-62) - governor general of india in 1857 The last Governor General and the first Viceroy Revolt of 1857 Passed the Act of 1858, which ended the rule of East India Company Withdraw Doctrine of Lapse The Indian Council Act of 1861 was passed, which proved to be landmark in the constitutional history of India. The Doctrine of Lapse was withdrawn. The Indian Penal Code of Criminal Procedure (1859) was passed. The Indian High Court Act (1861) was enacted Income tax was introduced for the first time in 1858 The universities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras founded in 1857. The Indigo riots in Bengal
Lord Eligin 1 (1862-63) Wahabi Movement (Pan-Islamic Movement)
Sir John Lawrence (1864-69) Telegraphic communication was opened with Europe High courts were established at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1865 Expanded canel works, railways. Bhutan War (1865) Advocated stated managed railways. Created the Indian Forests Department and recognized the native Judicial Service.
Lord Mayo (1869-72) Introduced financial decentralization of India and made the first provincial settlement in 1870 He established the Rajkot College at Kathiawar and Mato College at Ajmeer for the Indian Princes. He organized the statistical survey of India. He established the department of agriculture and commerce. He was the only Viceroy to be murdered in office by a convict in the Andamans in 1872. Introduction of State Railways.
Lord Northbrook (1872-76) Kuka movement of Punjap took rebellious turn during his period.
Lord Lytton (1876-80) The Viceroy of reverse character Most unpopular Governor General Pursued free trade and abolished duties on 29 British manufactured goods which accelerated drain of India Arrange the Grand Darbar in Delhi (in 1877) when the country was suffering from a server famine. Passed the Royal Title Act (1876) and Queen Victoria was declared as the Kaiser-a-Hind Arms Act (1878) made if mandatory for Indians to acquire license for arms. Passed the infamous Vernachular Press Act (1878) Proposed the plan of statutory Civil Service in 1878-79 and lowered the maximum age limit from 21 to 19 years. The 2nd Afgan war which proved a failure.
Lord Rippon (1880-84) He was appointed by the liberal party under Gladstone. Repeal of the Vernachular Press Act 1882. The First Factory Act 1881 to improve Labour condition. Resolution on land revenue policy. Appointed Hunter Commission (for education reforms) in 1882. The ilbert Bill controvery erupted during his time.
Lord Dufferin (1884-88) 3rd Burmese War (Annexation of upper and lower Burma 1885) Establishment of the Indian National Congress, 1885
Lord Lansdowne (1888-94) The Factory Act of 1891 Categorisation of Civil Services into imperial, provincial and subordinate. Indian Council Act of 1892 (introduced elections which was indirect). Appointment of the Durand Commission to define the line between British India and Afghanistan
Lord Elgin II (1888-94) The Santhal uprising of 1899 Convention delimiting the frontier between China and India was ratified. Grate famine of 1896-97 Lyll Commission appointed after famine Assassination of two British officials by the Chapekar Brothers in 1897
Lord Curzon (1899-1905) Appointed a Police Commission in 1902 under Andrew Frazer. Set up the universities commission and accordingly the Indian University Act of 1904 was passed Set up the Department of Commerce and Industry Calcutta Corporation Act (1899) Passed the Indian Coinage and Paper Currency Act (in 1899) and put India on a gold standard Partition of Bengal took place in 1905 (it was cardinal blunder of Curzon) In 1890, a Sino British Convention was organized to democrate the boundry of the two nations. He created the new North West frontier province between the ministrative frontier and the Durand line
Lord Minto (1905-1910) Swadeshi Movement. Surat session and split in the congress (1907) Newspaper Act 1908 Morley-Minto reforms 1909 Foundation of the Muslim League 1906.
Lord Hardinge II (1910-1916) Annulment of the partition of Bengal. Transfer of capital from Calcutta to Delhi Durbar in Delhi and coronation of George V and Queen Establishment of Hindu Mahasabha by Madan Mohan Malviya, 1915.
Lord Chelmsford (1916-21) Home Rule Movement lanuncheed by Tilak and annie Besant. Lucknow Pact, 1916 between Congress and Muslim League. Arrival of Gandhi and Champaran Satyagraha, 1916 Montague’s August Acceleration (1917) 1918-Kheda Satyagrapha and Satyagraha at Ahmedabad. Government of India Act (1919) Constitution reform of 1919 Repressive Rowlatt Acts (1919) Massacre at Jalianwala Bagh (1919) Suddler Commission of Education in 1917. Khilafat Movement. Non Co-operation Movement
Lord Reaing (1921-1926) Criminal Law Amendment Act and abolition of cotton excise Repeal of Press Act (1910) and Rowlatt Act of 1919 Chauri-Chaura incident Violent Moplah rebellion in kerala, 1921 C.P.I. founded in 1921 R.S.S. founded in 1925 Nagpur Kakori Robbery in 1925 Holding of the Simultaneous examination for the ICS England and India from 1923. Murder of Swami-Shraddhanand.
Lord Irwin (1926-1931) Simion Commission (announced) 1927 Butler Commission in 1927 All India Youth Congress 1928 Nehru Report, 1928 Lahore Session of the congress and poorna Swaraj declaration. Civil disobedience Movement in 1930 Dandi March (March 12th 1930) Ist Round Table Conference, (1930) Gandhi-Irwin Pact, March 5, 1931
Lord Willingdon (1931-1936) Civil Disobedience Movement. Second Round Table Conference in September 1931 Announcement of Communal Award, 1932 Third Round Table Conference, 1932 Foundation of Congress Socialist Party, 1934 Government of India Act, 1935 Burma separated from India, 1935 All India Kisan Sabha, 1936
Lord Linlithgow (1936-1944) Ist general election (1936-37) Congress ministers, 1937 and resignation of Congress Ministries, 1939 Forward Block founded in 1939 Deliverance of congress ministries, 1939 Lahore Resolution, 1940 August offer, 1940 Cripps Mission, 1942 Quit India Movement, 1942
Lord Wavell (1944-1947) C.R. Formula, 1944 Wavell Plan and Shima Conference in 1945 Enf of 2nd World war, 1945 INA Trails and the Naval mutiny, 1946 Cabinet Mission 1946 and acceptance of its proposals by Congress. Direct Action Day by the Muslim League on the 16th August 1946
Lord Mountbatten (March 1947 – August 1947) (August 1947 – June 1948) Last british governor general of india Announced the 3 June 1947 Plan. Introduction of Indian Independence Bill in the House of Commons. Appointment of 2 boundary commission under Sir Cryil Refcliffe. Last Viceroy of British India and the first Governor General of India. Last Viceroy of British India and the first Governor General of free India Retired in June 1948 and was succeeded by C. Rajagopalachari (the first and the last Indian Governor General of free India)
C. Raj Gopalachari (June 1948- January 1950) First indian governor general of india - last governor general of independent india
The last Governor General of free India. The only Indian Governor General remained in office from 21st june 1948 to 25th January 1950.