The process that allows a network to self-repair networks problems. The stations on the network notify the other stations on the ring when they are not receiving the transmissions. Beaconing is used in Token ring and FDDI networks
Telnet is also called as terminal emulation. It belongs to application layer
Frame relay is a packet switching technology. It will operate in the data link layer
The function of PAD (Packet Assembler Disassembler) is described in a document known as X.3. The standard protocol has been defined between the terminal and the PAD, called X.28; another standard protocol exists between hte PAD and the network, called X.29. Together, these three recommendations are often called "triple X"
Series of interface points that allow other computers to communicate with the other layers of network protocol stack