Disadvantages of Proxy ARP :
  • A lot of broadcast traffic
  • Must wait for ARP cache to time out in the event of failure
  • No control over which router is primary and secondary
What are the states of Hot Standby Routing Protocol (HSRP)?

Initial, Learn, Listen, Speak, Standby and Active

What is the use of ICMP Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP).

This will allow hosts to use the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) to find a new path when the primary router becomes unavailable.

Types of Distribution Trees:
Two types of trees exist in multicast:
Source trees: Source trees use the architecture of the source of the multicast traffic as the root of the tree.
Shared trees Shared trees use an architecture in which multiple sources share a common rendezvous point. Each of these methods is effective and allows sourced multicast data to reach an arbitrary number of recipients of the multicast group.
What is Data encapsulation ?

Data encapsulation is the process by which the information in a protocol is wrapped, or contained, in the data section of another protocol. In the OSI reference model, each layer encapsulates the layer immediately above it as the data flows down the protocol stack.